Almost all the guns' components were manufactured in Australia, with almost firms providing parts. The first Australian-built pounder was completed in May and 1, guns were delivered before production ceased at the end of Its local government area is the City of Maribyrnong, part of the River Ward. At the census, Maribyrnong had a population of 12, Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9, The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley.
It has a population of approximately 5 million, and its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The pounder was well suited to the open conditions the Army experienced in the Mediterranean and Middle East theatres but proved difficult to deploy in jungle terrain. While the developed road network in Malaya allowed it to be moved by vehicles during the Malayan Campaign , the rugged terrain and limited transport infrastructure in New Guinea meant that the guns could only be moved away from coastal plains and airfields by manhandling.
The term " British Malaya " loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent.
The difficulty of deploying artillery in New Guinea led to a need for a gun which could be broken down into light parts and transported by aircraft or jeeps. It was designed in the s to meet a need for a howitzer that could be moved across difficult terrain. The gun and carriage was designed so that it could be broken down into several pieces to be carried by pack animals. In September , the Army's Director of Artillery, Brigadier John O'Brien , suggested that a variant of the pounder be developed to meet this requirement.
Design work began in September , and an acceptable weapon was ready by January the next year. Preparations to manufacture the gun commenced while it was still being designed. This violated the Army's usual procedures for fielding new weapons, but proved successful.
After the war he was the Australian supply and defence production representative in Washington, DC from to , and the Mayor of Woollahra from to and to The new gun used as many standard pounder parts as possible, but included a number of major differences in order to reduce the weapon's weight. A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns. It is the straight shooting tube, usually made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gas es is introduced behind a projectile in order to propel it out of the front end muzzle at a high velocity.
Ordnance QF pounder - WikiVisually
The hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore. The measurement of the diameter of the bore is called the caliber. Caliber is usually measured in inches or millimetres. A recuperator is a special purpose counter-flow energy recovery heat exchanger positioned within the supply and exhaust air streams of an air handling system, or in the exhaust gases of an industrial process, in order to recover the waste heat. Generally, they are used to extract heat from the exhaust and use it to preheat air entering the combustion system.
In this way they use waste energy to heat the air, offsetting some of the fuel, and thereby improves the energy efficiency of the system as a whole. It was the first tank to be built with a hull cast as a single piece, and the only tank to be produced in quantity in Australia. The few Sentinels that were built never saw action as Australia's armoured divisions had been equipped by that time with British and American tanks.
The QF pounder Short incorporated a number of design features which sought to increase its mobility. The gun could be broken down into 13 or 14 parts in under two minutes, allowing it to be air dropped from aircraft or packed into Jeeps. The guns were initially fitted with stabilisers to reduce stress on their wheels when firing, but these were later removed as they caused problems when reversing or running up the guns in action. Initial testing of the prototype QF pounder Short was completed in early December This lot incorporated the Mark II carriage, which had larger wheels and tyres to prevent the problem with wheel bounce encountered by the first lot.
Altogether, guns were manufactured by the time production ceased in QF pounder Short guns were first issued to front line artillery regiments in August as part of the reorganisation of the Australian Army's fighting units to the " Jungle division " structure. Under this structure, one of each field regiment's three batteries was re-equipped with the new guns.
Barker, preferred the 75mm pack howitzer to the pounder Short, and tried to prevent the new gun being issued, but was overruled by Brigadier O'Brien. The QF pounder Short received a mixed reception from gunners, and was particularly unpopular among members of AIF artillery units which had used the standard pounder during the fighting in the Middle East.
The gun also had a tendency to tilt at low elevation; this was remedied by its crew standing on the trails, an expedient that had previously been used with the QF 4. Other limitations included a low rate of fire three or four rounds per minute and difficulties towing the weapon. Inspectors subsequently concluded that most of his criticisms were unfounded, however. As a result of its experience with the gun, the 9th Division recommended that they be pooled and reserved for their special role rather than be employed in a day-to-day role alongside the regular 25 pounder.
Post-war assessments of the gun's performance are generally positive. The Australian official history acknowledged the QF pounder Short's limitations, but argued that these were the result of it being developed to perform a specialised role for which some trade-offs in performance were needed, and that on balance it was a successful weapon. The Ordnance QF pounder , or more simply pounder or pdr , was the major British field gun and howitzer during the Second World War, possessing a 3. It was introduced into service just before the war started, combining high-angle and direct-fire, relatively high rates of fire, and a reasonably lethal shell in a highly mobile piece.
It remained the British Army's primary artillery field piece well into the s, with smaller numbers serving in training units until the s. Many Commonwealth of Nations countries used theirs in active or reserve service until about the s and ammunition for the weapon is currently being produced by Pakistan Ordnance Factories. It formed the backbone of the Royal Field Artillery during the war, and was produced in large numbers.
It was used by British Forces in all the main theatres, and by British troops in Russia in It was generally horse drawn until mechanisation in the s. The BL 4. It had nothing in common with the QF 4. Ordnance, QF 3. The Jungle division was a military organisation adopted in early by the Australian Army during the Second World War.
This organisation was a much lighter version of the standard British-pattern infantry division used during previous campaigns in the deserts of the Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre fighting the Germans and Italians in and and was optimised to meet the needs of jungle warfare against the Japanese in the South West Pacific Area. Jungle divisions were smaller and had fewer heavy weapons, vehicles and support units than the British-pattern division previously used and had an establishment of just 13, men, approximately 4, fewer than a standard division. The bulk of the reduction occurred among the administrative, transport and artillery units.
The conditions that prevailed in the South West Pacific Area led the Australian Army to initially convert five infantry divisions to Jungle divisions, although this was later increased to six. Divisions converted to the jungle organisation included three Militia divisions: the 3rd, 5th and 11th and the three Australian Imperial Force AIF divisions: the 6th, 7th, 9th.
Photos and colour drawings of the tank and interior views. MMP Publications. Many photos and several pages of colour profiles of various camouflage schemes, unit and tactical markings.
New Vanguard: The 25-Pounder Field Gun, 1939-72 48 by Chris Henry (2002, Paperback)
Excellent condition. Almark Press, 36pp.
- New Vanguard: The 25-pounder field gun, 1939-72 by Chris Henry (Paperback).
- 88 mm artillery.
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ISBN This book covers camouflage and markings of the Afrika Korps including soft skinned vehicles, tactical flags, etc. Some sun fade on spine and scuffs on covers. Good condition. New Vanguard. A brief description of German tactics and employment of these vehicles. Many photos and colour drawings of various German armoured cars and half-tracks.
Arms and Armour Press, pp. Each gun has a description, specifications and performance data. Almost all have a photo. There is also a section on ammunition. An indispensable reference. Signature of original owner on flyleaf. Fully illustrated with at least one photo per type. Small bumps to bottom of spine. Otherwise in very good condition. Osprey Publishing, 40pp.
RAILWAY GUNS OF WORLD WAR II
Photos and maps. Colour illustrations of the interior, camouflage and markings. Osprey Publications. Photos, profiles, colour drawings of camouflage schemes. Signal Publishing. A complete history of the M3 and its many versions. Profusely illustrated with photos and colour profiles. Card covers in excellent condition. Ian Allen Publishing, 1st. Many photos and interior details. Colour drawings of unit and tactical markings.
Revised edition, Warne and Co.