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Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Literature Cited. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. E-mail: geokp leeds. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract An analysis of the elevational distributions of Southeast Asian birds over a year period provides evidence for a potential upward shift for 94 common resident species.

Issue Section:. A real birding dream. This steamy Inner Terai national park is not just famed for its big game but also the variety of birdlife. There are over migrant and local species birds recorded including cormorants, herons, egrets, storks, cranes, woodpeckers, hawks, ospreys, falcons, kestrel, ibises, kites, kingfishers and many others.

Birding in this remote Himalayan kingdom is truly spell-binding. Some of the most extensive tracts of forest and mountainous terrain remaining in the Himalaya are home to some species of birds.

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With doors newly opened to tourism and a field guide to help you sort out the species, this is the time to visit Bhutan. This world heritage site is arguably the greatest water bird sanctuary in Asia. It lies on the migratory path for waterfowl crossing to Central Asia or the Pacific and its 11 square miles of wetland, woodland and scrub are full of birds, including the endangered Siberian Crane that winters here.

Aquila eagles, bluethroats, owns, hornbills, herons, cormorants and many other birds can be seen hunting, feeding and flitting from dawn to dusk. Birding in Sulawesi is amazing with nearly of the recorded birds being endemic or near endemic. This remote peninsula of Siberian Russia has a variety of habitats that cater for a diverse number of bird species. Snow covered peaks, forest, tundra, bog and meadow are home to pelagic cormorants, tufted puffins, impressive seabird colonies, sea eagles, gulls and other birds.

Charter a boat, walk the beaches or hike through forest to do your birding. Despite its man made status, avid bird lovers will find this region spectacular with species flitting amongst the islands, rivers and waterfalls. This park is one of the best bird watching destinations in southern Thailand. Close to species reside in the park and paddling the reservoir is a good way of bird watching. We used maximum ambient noise in this analysis, as this is likely to have the most effect on the avian community relative to other noise measurements Ware et al.

We did not conduct ambient noise measurements in , but a traffic survey by the Bureau of Highway Safety, Department of Highways, on Route along our study area in Department of Highway found a similar traffic volume to our study in vs. Since traffic noise is determined by traffic volume Arevalo and Newhard , we used our data to represent the ambient noise in both years. We excluded year and spatial variables transect and elevation from this analysis as we found no support for either of them affecting counts or richness. We expected that ambient noise and vegetation variables would change with distance from the edge, so when these factors were correlated with distance, we regarded distance from edge as the best predictor of changes in species richness and abundance of avian guilds.

To evaluate the effect of the forest edge on each guild, we generated models with random slopes and intercepts. We then created estimated regression lines and calculated estimated coefficients, standard errors, and confidence intervals for each guild from the top-ranked model to indicate the responses of each guild to the possible edge effects. A total of independent surveys were conducted during our two-year study.

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  5. We recorded detections and identified 70 species of birds Additional file 1 : Table S1. Some species were observed for relatively short periods, such as migratory species; e. On the other hand, there were some species found only near the edge, such as prinias Prinia sp. Total species richness and average abundance of birds in relation to distance from the forest edge at the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station in — When we considered the vegetation structure from the forest edge into the interior, we found that the total basal area was larger further from the edge Fig.

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    The stem density of trees was also higher at the interior. The stem density of saplings was higher at both edge and deeper interior areas, relative to intermediate distances Fig. Means for selected variables at each sample distance from the edge to define potential effects on richness and abundance of avian guilds at the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station in — based on generalized linear mixed models. Selected variables y-axes included: stem density of vegetation with heights between 0.

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    We retained distance from edge as a fixed effect to represent effects of these four variables Fig. We generated 22 models for the effects of forest edge on richness and abundance of avian guilds. The top-ranked models for both species richness and abundance were interaction models that included two variables, distance from edge and stem density of saplings i.

    For guild-specific predictions, the models suggested that there was an effect of the distance from edge and vegetation structure on richness and abundance of avian guilds, and distance to edge also represented ambient noise and several characteristics of vegetation structure because of correlations Fig.

    However, each guild responded differently to the edge Fig. The richness of these guilds were higher at greater distances from the edge, where the density of saplings, basal area, and percentage cover of higher vegetation layers were higher, but percentage cover of lower layers 0. The estimated regression lines for eight avian guilds and their responses relative to distance from the edge at the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station in — The abundances of bark-gleaning, sallying, terrestrial, and understory insectivores were higher further away from the edge where the density of saplings, basal area, and percentage cover of vegetation in higher layers were higher, but percentage cover of vegetation in lower layers and ambient noise were lower Fig.

    Loss and fragmentation of intact forest landscapes caused by roads and other infrastructure development leads to landscape transformation and loss of its conservation value Potapov et al. We found support for our hypothesis that edge effects influenced at least some avian guilds differently and that certain groups, including understory, sallying, terrestrial, and bark-gleaning insectivores, were observed to be higher in richness and abundance in the forest interior.

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    Our study revealed complex spatial patterns in the bird community near a roadside forest edge at SERS in Thailand. Overall, species richness and abundance of most avian guilds were reduced close to the edge, similar to findings of other tropical studies Watson et al. In contrast, increased vegetation cover in low and middle layers and ambient noise seemed to have negative effects. The vegetation structure near the forest edge was different from the forest interior. Similar to previous studies, forest edge areas had a higher density of small trees and saplings, resulting in higher vegetation cover near the ground but lower cover in the canopy, as well as lower total basal area and lower density of larger trees Dale et al.

    However, the density of saplings in our study area was higher at both edge and deeper interior areas, but relatively lower at intermediate distances. The lower richness and abundance of insectivores near the edge in our study was similar to other tropical studies Laurance et al. Vegetation structure had the strongest effect on species richness and abundance of insectivorous birds, with higher complexity of vegetation structure positively associated with species richness and abundance of most insectivores, especially bark-gleaning, sallying, terrestrial, and understory insectivores Ferger et al.

    These structural changes may have negatively affected the foraging microhabitats for understory insectivorous birds Pollock et al.

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    The reduced layers of small trees may limit shelter and foraging substrates for sallying and understory insectivores, such as the Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea and Orange-breasted Trogon Harpactes oreskios ; whereas the greater cover at ground level may be an obstacle to terrestrial insectivores such as the Puff-throated Babbler Pellorneum ruficeps.

    In contrast, the forest interior had a more complex vegetation structure, with a higher basal area, higher density of larger trees, more vegetation layers, and less ground cover, which probably provided more diverse arthropod resources and foraging habitats Ferger et al.

    Bark-gleaning woodpeckers and understory insectivores trogons and kingfishers also were negatively affected by the edge. Their richness and abundance were higher in the interior and positively related to the basal area, density of large trees and canopy cover, which has also been reported by Mahmoudi et al.

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    This group of birds may also avoid edge areas due to the rarity of particular foraging and nesting substrates, including larger trees and stumps Newton ; Lindell et al. There was a small, but significantly negative response to edges by arboreal frugivore-insectivores, similar to some other studies in the tropics Watson et al. Slightly higher richness and abundance of frugivores in the forest interior may be associated with a higher basal area and density of large trees Deikumah et al. Higher basal area, density of large trees and vegetation cover at the canopy level of our forest interior could provide greater fruit availability Lindenmayer et al.

    Some other studies have found frugivores to be tolerant to edges Menke et al.

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    On the other hand, richness and abundance of forest specialists and large-bodied frugivores, such as hornbills and pigeons, decreased at the edges Deikumah et al. Sixty percent of our birds in this guild were forest interior species Round et al. Moreover, the roadside habitat adjacent to our forest edge was unlikely to attract frugivores in the way that agricultural habitats often do.